More world-leading research; more internationalisation; more mobility; more open access; more impact; more arts and humanities perspectives on other disciplines; more research links in teaching; we want more of most things, quite simply But how should Swedish research be organised and funded to achieve all this? The question covers numerous problems and dilemmas. What should be the distribution between major programmes and minor projects? Should research proposals be evaluated with reference to the applicants earlier achievements bibliometrically, for example or to the results expected? How much weight should be given to practical social benefits? Should assessments mainly be done by other researchers (peer review)? If so, how can they avoid spending more and more of their time evaluating other researchers? What specific role should research play in academic teaching? At universities in general? Or in politics, for that matter? Shouldnt researchers, to a higher degree, impart their results to decision-makers and the public with far greater outreach than today? Nowadays, more than half of Swedens university research is paid for by research funders outside the higher education institutions. Such funders include central government agencies, but also independent bodies. Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ), the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences, fosters and supports research in these disciplines. This book, published to mark RJs Golden Jubilee in 2015, is an attempt to think ahead on issues concerning the future of research.